What are the three Dimensions of Strategic Change? Explanation
1. Content (objectives, purpose and goals) – WHAT
2. Process (implementation) – HOW
3. Context (the internal and external environment) – WHERE
Pettigrew and Whipp emphasize the continuous interplay between these change dimensions. The implementation of change is an “iterative, cumulative and reformulation-in-use process. ” Successful change is a result of the interaction between the content or what of change (objectives, purpose and goals); the process or how of change (implementation); and the organizational context or where of change (the internal and external environment).
Based on substantial empirical research, they also present five central interrelated factors, belonging to successfully managing strategic change.
Five change factors of Pettigrew and Whipp
1. Environmental assessment. Continuous monitoring of both the internal and external environment [competition] of the organization through open learning systems.
2. Human resources as assets and liabilities. Employees should know that they are seen as valuable, and they should feel that the organization trusts them.
3. Linking strategic and operational change. Intentions are implemented through time. Bundling of operational activities is powerful and can lead to new strategic changes.
4. Leading the change. Move the organization ahead. Creating the right climate for change. Coordinating activities. Steering. Set the agenda not only for the direction of the change, but also for the right vision and values.
5. Overall coherence. A change strategy should be consistent (clear goals), consonant (with its environment), provide a competitive edge and be feasible.